社区应用 最新帖子 精华区 社区服务 会员列表 统计排行 银行
主题 : 全国医学博士英语写作之滥用抗生素的危害
admin 离线
级别: 总版主
显示用户信息 
楼主  发表于: 03-09  

全国医学博士英语写作之滥用抗生素的危害

纵观医学博士英语考试历年作文题,“抗生素滥用” 这个主题还没有考过。这个话题现在还是蛮热门的(包括超级细菌),也很容易出题。医学博士外语今天就给大家布置作文一篇,主要目的是练兵,顺便带大家碰碰运气。

请大家在 50 分钟之内,按全国医学博士英语统考作文的要求完成下面的作文。
Part V   Writing (20%)
Directions: In this part there is an essay in Chinese. Read it carefully and then write a summary of 200 words in English on the ANSWER SHEET. Make sure that your summary covers the major points of the passage.

滥用抗生素的危害
      抗生素滥用已成为世界范围内公共卫生领域的重大问题。除污染环境、威胁人体健康外,因产生耐药性而出现的 “超级细菌”,是目前最令人担心的问题。
      开发一个新药一般需要 10 年左右时间,而一代耐药菌的产生往往只需要两年。抗生素滥用情况加重,最终会导致“超级细菌”横行。按照目前耐药情况的发展趋势,我国很有可能成为最先陷入超级细菌频生、最终无抗生素可用境地的国家之一。因为细菌变异速度太快,一些国家不得不通过政府出资来推动解决这一问题。
      专家说,尽管地表水中抗生素的浓度比医用剂量低得多,但长期不间断地排放,会污染地下水和土壤,进而污染食物。人和动物置身其中,很可能感染耐药菌。
      有关资料显示,截至 2017 年我国 7 岁以下儿童因为不合理使用抗生素造成耳聋的数量多达 30 万人,占耳聋儿童总数的 30%~40%,而一些发达国家却只占 0.9%。
      据调查,农村是抗生素滥用的重灾区,不论是养殖业还是医疗用药,都普遍存在盲目使用抗生素的问题。滥用抗生素会损伤肝肾,产生不良反应,导致人体菌群失调免疫力下降。
      一般说来,滥用抗生素有四大危害。
      第一,毒副作用。
      是药三分毒,应严格遵照医嘱服药,切不可盼复心切,擅自加大抗菌药物 (包括抗生素和人工合成的抗菌药,如氟哌酸) 的药量,否则很可能损伤神经系统、肾脏、血液系统。尤其是对肝肾功能出现异常的患者,更要慎重。需要强调的是,一般来说,轻度上呼吸道感染选用口服抗生素即可,但很多人却选择了静脉输液,这无形中也增加了出现副作用的风险。
      第二,过敏反应。
      多发生在具有特异性体质的人身上,其表现以过敏性休克最为严重。青霉素、链霉素都可能引发,其中青霉素最常见也更为严重。过敏反应严重时可能致命。
      第三,二重感染。
      当用抗菌药物抑制或杀死敏感的细菌后,有些不敏感的细菌或霉菌却继续生长繁殖,造成新的感染,这就是 “二重感染”。这在长期滥用抗菌药物的病人中很多见。因此治疗困难,病死率高。
      第四,耐药。
      由于细菌的进化永远不会停止,因而对任何抗生素都会有产生耐药性的可能。抗菌药物的滥用正让我们付出巨大的代价,药品不良反应、药源性疾病大量增加,越来越多的细菌对抗药品的能量不断增大。而且由于药物长期刺激,使一部分致病菌产生变异、成为耐药菌株。这种耐药性既会被其他细菌所获得,也会遗传给下一代。“超级细菌” 很大程度上就是抗菌药物滥用催生出来的。如果这种情况继续恶化下去,很可能使人类面临感染时无药可用的境地。

文章的标题怎么写?
这篇文章的中文标题是 “滥用抗生素的危害”,用英文我们可以写成:
Hazards of Antibiotic Abuse
这个标题中,hazards 也可以写成 dangers。
在既往的辅导中,我发现有同学竟然不知道“滥用”用英语怎么说,只好写成 overuse(过度使用),写完作文一查词典,才知道“滥用”是 abuse。
abuse蕴含了两层意思:一是“使用过度”,二是“使用混乱”,所以overuse还不完全等同于overuse。
到了考场上,遇到关键词不会写怎么办?第一不要慌,第二要想办法变通。abuse(滥用)这个词不会,用 overuse(过度使用)来替代,确实意思有偏差,比较勉强,但是如果我们 overuse 的在后面追加一个 misuse(乱用),overuse and misuse 双剑合璧,大体上也敌得过 abuse 了。

关于作文的标题,记住两点:
如果中文原文有标题,那我们的作文也应该拟一个对应的英文标题;
英文标题中,除了介词,其他所有单词都应首字母大写。另外,如果介词的长度大于五个字母,也要大写,比如between虽然是介词,但是由于长度过长,所以大写。
接下来,就把“抗生素滥用”这个主题的作文给大家划个重点,希望能就这个话题能帮大家准备充分。从定义、现状、原因、危害、举措这个五个方面为大家整理了实用的、可套用的句子。这些句子全部选自主流外媒,严谨、地道。还是那句话,万一考到,有备无患。

 “抗生素滥用”的定义
Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on health.
It is a contributing factor to the development of antibiotic resistance, including the creation of multidrug-resistant bacteria, informally called "super bugs", which can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections.

Antibiotics are mant for use, not abuse.
多棒的句子!
“抗生素滥用”的现状

Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's most pressing health problems. According to a recent survey, up to one-third to one-half of antibiotic use in humans is unnecessary or inappropriate.
The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics, which have transformed medicine and saved millions of lives. Many decades after the first patients were treated with antibiotics, bacterial infections have again become a threat.
Antibiotics are drugs used for treating infections caused by bacteria. Also known as antimicrobial drugs, antibiotics have saved countless lives. Misuse and overuse of these drugs, however, have contributed to a phenomenon known as antibiotic resistance. This resistance develops when potentially harmful bacteria change in a way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of antibiotics.
Antibiotics have been commonly available since the 1940s, and have done wonders at saving patients with infections ranging from pneumonia to sexually spread diseases. But bacteria have increasingly gained the power to shrug off antibiotics.

“抗生素滥用”的原因
The overuse of antibiotics—especially taking antibiotics even when they're not the appropriate treatment—promotes antibiotic resistance. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, up to 1/3 to 1/2 of antibiotic use in humans is unnecessary or inappropriate.
Experts say chances of resistance increase when antibiotics are not used long enough or are taken for the wrong reasons, allowing bacteria to survive and adapt.
Livestock producers routinely give antibiotics to animals to make them grow faster or help them survive crowded, stressful, and unsanitary conditions. When these drugs are overused—by humans or animals—some bacteria become antibiotic-resistant, threatening the future effectiveness of these medicines. Public-health officials say antibiotic resistance is one of the leading human health threats of our time.
There has been massive use of antibiotics in animal husbandry. The most abundant use of antimicrobials worldwide are in livestock; they are typically distributed in animal feed or water for purposes such as disease prevention and growth promotion.
Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics and insufficient infection control in health care facilities can contribute to drug resistance and put patients at risk for deadly infections.

“抗生素滥用”的危害
Overuse is one reason antibiotics are losing their punch, making infections harder to treat.
Frequent and inappropriate use of antibiotics can cause bacteria or other microbes to change so antibiotics don’t work against them. This is called bacterial resistance or antibiotic resistance. Treating these resistant bacteria requires higher doses of medicine or stronger antibiotics. Because of antibiotic overuse, certain bacteria have become resistant to even the most powerful antibiotics available today.
Antibiotic resistance is a widespread problem. Bacteria that were once highly responsive to antibiotics have become more and more resistant. Among those that are becoming harder to treat are pneumococcal infections (which cause pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, and meningitis), skin infections, and tuberculosis.
In addition to antibiotic resistance, misusing antibiotics can lead to other problems. Antibiotics kill many different bacteria, even the good ones that help keep the body healthy. Sometimes taking antibiotics can cause a person to develop diarrhea due to a lack of good bacteria that help digest food properly. In some cases, bad bacteria, may overgrow and cause infections.

应对“抗生素滥用”的举措
Now more than ever is the time for public health authorities and health care facilities to work together. Health departments, track and alert health care facilities to drug-resistant outbreaks in their area. Health care facilities, work with public health authorities to share information about antibiotic-resistant germs to stop their spread.
With effective infection control and antibiotic stewardship efforts, we could save 37,000 lives over five years.
描述
快速回复

如果您在写长篇帖子又不马上发表,建议存为草稿
验证问题:
3+5=? 正确答案:8
按"Ctrl+Enter"直接提交